Circuit Breaker and Power Sensing
Circuit breakers sense current. Take the fuse for instance. When it senses that the current has exceeded the carrying capacity of the circuit, it cuts the current.
Circuit breakers work well with RMS or DC supply voltages. But what about other types of power supplies like variable supplies? In such case, as most embedded engineers would confirm, you may be better off with a custom power supply.
A current sensing circuit breaker can be implemented in a number of ways. Bimetallic strips and resettable fuses are basically electro thermal. In each circuit design, materials of known resistance are placed in series.
The circuit breaker begins to heat up when current passes through it. When the current touches unsafe levels, the circuit snaps. This occurs through many ways.
If it is a fuse, the material will melt. If it is a resettable fuse, the resistance will increase dramatically and if the circuit breaker is made from a bimetallic strip, the metal bends, opening a switch which cuts the current.
There Are Even Electromagnetic Circuit Breakers. They Function Like A Bimetallic Strip. The Difference Is, The Mechanical Actuation Does Not Happen Due To Heat. Rather It Occurs Due To An Electromagnet.
Custom Power Supplies Are Suited For All Types Of Circuit Breakers Precisely Because They Can Be Customized.